This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book describes a novel and proven approach to cytologically classify urinary samples for the detection of bladder cancer and lesions of the upper urinary tract. The new method is based on the collective experience of knowledgeable cytopathologists who have tested the terminology within their own laboratories for reproducibility and predictability of neoplasms of the urinary tract. Accompanying the written criteria for each diagnostic category are meticulously photographed exemplars of the cellular features, with cogently annotated descriptions of the photographs. The book thereby performs as an atlas for microscopists involved in diagnostic cytopathology at all levels of their education. Included in the targeted readership are experienced pathologists, cytotechnologists, and students of both professional groups. The new terminology also considers the clinical aspects of patient management.
Written by experts in the field who convened at the 18th International Congress of Cytology in Paris, The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology presents a global standard for reporting and a new philosophic approach that maximizes the strengths of detecting the potentially lethal high grade lesions by urinary cytology, and recognizes without apology the inability to reliably detect the low grade lesions in urinary cytology.The Concept has been endorsed by the American Society Of Cytopathology, and the International Academy of Cytology.
Proteins are exposed to various interfacial stresses during drug product development. They are subjected to air-liquid, liquid-solid, and, sometimes, liquid-liquid interfaces throughout the development cycle-from manufacturing of drug substances to storage and drug delivery. Unlike small molecule drugs, proteins are typically unstable at interfaces where, on adsorption, they often denature and form aggregates, resulting in loss of efficacy and potential immunogenicity. This book covers both the fundamental aspects of proteins at interfaces and the quantification of interfacial behaviors of proteins. Importantly, this book introduces the industrial aspects of protein instabilities at interfaces, including the processes that introduce new interfaces, evaluation of interfacial instabilities, and mitigation strategies. The audience that this book targets encompasses scientists in the pharmaceutical and biotech industry, as well as faculty and students from academia in the surface science, pharmaceutical, and medicinal chemistry areas.
This book projects a futuristic scenario that is more existent than they have been at any time earlier. To be conscious of the bursting prospective of IoT, it has to be amalgamated with AI technologies. Predictive and advanced analysis can be made based on the data collected, discovered and analyzed. To achieve all these compatibility, complexity, legal and ethical issues arise due to automation of connected components and gadgets of widespread companies across the globe. While these are a few examples of issues, the authors' intention in editing this book is to offer concepts of integrating AI with IoT in a precise and clear manner to the research community. In editing this book, the authors' attempt is to provide novel advances and applications to address the challenge of continually discovering patterns for IoT by covering various aspects of implementing AI techniques to make IoT solutions smarter. The only way to remain pace with this data generated by the IoT and acquire the concealed acquaintance it encloses is to employ AI as the eventual catalyst for IoT. IoT together with AI is more than an inclination or existence; it will develop into a paradigm. It helps those researchers who have an interest in this field to keep insight into different concepts and their importance for applications in real life. This has been done to make the edited book more flexible and to stimulate further interest in topics. All these motivated the authors toward integrating AI in achieving smarter IoT. The authors believe that their effort can make this collection interesting and highly attract the student pursuing pre-research, research and even master in multidisciplinary domain.
This book presents an overview of cancer and the genesis, and development of different treatment strategies and modalities against cancer. The emergence of gold and its complexes as promising anticancer chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to substitute or replace the platinum based chemotherapeutic agents. Gold complexes have demonstrated considerable anti-proliferative properties, chiefly attributed to their anti-mitochondrial effects, they make gold complexes excellent candidates as anti-cancer agents compared to their platinum-based counterparts. This book provides a critical review of recent advances made in the development of gold complexes as anti-cancer agents. In this context, it examines a number of different ligand architectures, provides comprehensive information on gold complexes' mechanism of action and toxicity issues and, in closing, outlines future research directions.
This book critiques dominant discourses and debates pertaining to cultural identity, set against the current backdrop of growing social stratification and unequal access to quality education. It addresses current discourses concerning globalisation, ideologies and the state, as well as approaches to constructing national, ethnic and religious identities in the global culture. It explores the ambivalent and problematic connections between the state, globalisation, the construction of cultural identity, and the nation-building process - also in connection with history education and the history textbooks used in schools. The book also explores conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches applicable to research on the state, globalisation, nation-building and identity politics.
Drawing on diverse paradigms, ranging from critical theory to globalisation, the book, by focusing on globalisation, ideology and cultural identity, critically examines recent research in history education and its impact of identity politics, as well as the most significant dimensions defining and contextualising the processes surrounding nation-building and identity politics globally. Given the need for a multiple perspective approach, the authors, who have diverse backgrounds and hail from different countries and regions, offer a wealth of insights, contributing to a more holistic understanding of the nexus between the nation-state and national identity.
This book focuses on deck bridges with encased steel beams. The chapters discuss the design process in deck bridges in the past and some current issues regarding the design and construction of this type of bridges, particularly in Slovakia. The theoretical part covers the latest achievements of international endeavours in composite bridge research. The authors provide results on research into structures with encased steel beams, based on experiments carried out solely by the Department of Structural Engineering of the Faculty of Civil Engineering at the Technical University in Kosice. The results obtained are compared with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. The book also contains some information on testing the materials of steel and concrete and their characteristics. Finally, a variety of types of composite action between steel and concrete have been examined and are discussed.
Dieses Buch befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von Analyse- und Syntheseverfahren für nichtlineare Mehrgrßensysteme mit Modellen in Deskriptorform. Mit einem eigens für Deskriptormodelle eingeführten rekursiven Operator lassen sich die entwickelten Analyse- und Syntheseverfahren kompakt darstellen. Die Rolle dieses Operators im Rahmen von Deskriptormodellen entspricht derjenigen der Lie-Ableitung im Zusammenhang mit Zustandsmodellen. Im Anschluss an die Analyse der Strukturen und Eigenschaften von Deskriptormodellen werden die Schwerpunkte auf den Entwurf einer Rückführung zur exakten Linearisierung und Entkopplung des Eingangs-Ausgangsverhaltens, auf den Entwurf von Beobachtern zur Schätzung der Deskriptorvariablen und auf die Realisierbarkeit von verkoppelten Deskriptormodellen gelegt.
The "Blue Economy" is used to describe all of the economic activities related to the sea, with a special emphasis on sustainability. Traditional activities such as fisheries, but also undersea mining, tourism, and scientific research are included, as well as the phenomenal growth of aquaculture during the past decade. All of these activities, and the irresistible prospect of another new frontier, has led to enthusiastic and, most likely, overenthusiastic assessments of the possibilities to exploit the sea to feed the world, provide low-cost energy, become a new source of minerals, and other future miracles. This book makes sense of these trends and of the future of the blue economy by following our remote ancestors who gradually discovered the sea and its resources, describing the so-called fisherman's curse - or why fishermen have always been poor, explaining why humans tend to destroy the resources on which we depend, and assessing the realistic expectations for extracting resources from the sea. Although the sea is not so badly overexploited as the land, our demands on ecosystem services are already above the oceans' sustainability limits. Some new ideas, including "fishing down" for untapped resources such as plankton, could lead to the collapse of the entire marine ecosystem.
How Neanderthals crossed the sea in canoes, how it was possible for five men on a small boat to kill a giant whale, what kind of oil the virgins of the Gospel put into their lamps, how a professor of mathematics, Vito Volterra, discovered the "equations of fishing," why it has become so easy to be stung by a jellyfish while swimming in the sea, and how to play "Moby Dick," a simple board game that simulates the overexploitation of natural resources are just some of the questions that you will be able to answer after reading this engaging and insightful book about the rapidly expanding relationship between humanity and the sea.
This book provides conceptual understanding of machine learning algorithms though supervised, unsupervised, and advanced learning techniques. The book consists of four parts: foundation, supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and advanced learning. The first part provides the fundamental materials, background, and simple machine learning algorithms, as the preparation for studying machine learning algorithms. The second and the third parts provide understanding of the supervised learning algorithms and the unsupervised learning algorithms as the core parts. The last part provides advanced machine learning algorithms: ensemble learning, semi-supervised learning, temporal learning, and reinforced learning.Provides comprehensive coverage of both learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised learning;Outlines the computation paradigm for solving classification, regression, and clustering;Features essential techniques for building the a new generation of machine learning.
This proceedings book is the fourth edition of a series of works which features emergent research trends and recent innovations related to smart city presented at the 5th International Conference on Smart City Applications SCA20 held in Safranbolu, Turkey. This book is composed of peer-reviewed chapters written by leading international scholars in the field of smart cities from around the world.
This book covers all the smart city topics including Smart Citizenship, Smart Education, Smart Mobility, Smart Healthcare, Smart Mobility, Smart Security, Smart Earth Environment & Agriculture, Smart Economy, Smart Factory and Smart Recognition Systems.
This book contains a special section intended for Covid-19 pandemic researches. This book edition is an invaluable resource for courses in computer science, electrical engineering and urban sciences for sustainable development.
This book focuses on emerging issues related to internal displacement in Africa. The six principal issues discussed are climate change, technology, xenophobia, harmful practices, generalized violence and development projects. Increasingly, the need to understand the root causes of the dimensions of internal displacement and the dimensions in which this displacement manifests have become a pertinent rhetoric in the discussion on internal displacement. Therefore, this monograph examines emerging issues for which there is very little in the internal displacement discussion, with the aim of providing knowledge within African regional contexts to advance law and policy formation. The novelty of this book lies in the fact that it moves beyond the conventional discussion on internal displacement into grey areas on the subject in Africa, leveraging the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons (the Kampala Convention). This book will be a significant reference point for researchers, professors, practitioners, judges, policy makers, international organizations, regional bodies, lawyers and scholars in the fields of migration, forced migration, and regional institutions.
This book comprises the best potato seed production practices and includes details on potato cultivation, classification, and the main structural elements of the successive stages of potato seed production. It presents potato varieties from Russian originators, describes modern technologies involved in the process of potato seed production, and presents special aspects of phytosanitary and process regulations for the cultivation of high-quality potato seed.
Additionally, the authors illustrate the statutory regulation of salable quality of potato seed: purity of variety, diseases, pests, and defects. The authors identify Russian quality control methods and certification of potato seed, and consider the packaging and labeling of potato seed that is held for sale. Finally, the authors also clarify the features of foreign potato seed certification systems.
This book presents novel and original metaheuristics developed to solve the cost-balanced traveling salesman problem. This problem was taken into account for the Metaheuristics Competition proposed in MESS 2018, Metaheuristics Summer School, and the top 4 methodologies ranked are included in the book, together with a brief introduction to the traveling salesman problem and all its variants.
The book is aimed particularly at all researchers in metaheuristics and combinatorial optimization areas.
Key uses are metaheuristics; complex problem solving; combinatorial optimization; traveling salesman problem.
This book contains a collection of the main contributions from the third edition of the NICFD conference, organized by the Special Interest Group on Non-Ideal Compressible Fluid Dynamics (SIG-49). It provides insight on the latest research findings in the field of NICFD that are relevant to a number of engineering applications related to the conversion of renewable and waste energy sources, like organic Rankine cycles, supercritical CO2 cycle power plants, combustors operating with supercritical fluids, and heat pumps. The various chapters of the book document research encompassing theoretical, computational, and experimental aspects of the gas dynamics of non-ideal reactive and non-reactive flows and their impact for the design of internal flow components (turbomachinery, heat exchangers, combustors). Since the accurate calculation of fluid thermo-physical properties is of great concern in NICFD, all the chapters address this problem by describing state-of-the-art models for the characterization of the properties of pure fluids and mixtures.
This book presents some developments in the field of welding technology. It starts with classical welding concepts, covering then new approaches. Topics such as ultrasonic welding, robots welding, welding defects and welding quality control are presented in a clear, didactic way. Lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering are highlighted as well.
Der Softwareingenieur von heute muss die grundlegende Disziplin der Entwicklung sicherer informationstechnischer Systeme verstehen. Nicht, weil es eine ein gute Idee ist, sondern weil unsere Arbeits- und Lebenswelten zunehmend auf die Funktionsfähigkeit und die Sicherheit hochkomplexer und dynamischer informationstechnischer Infrastrukturen angewiesen sind. Die Vorstellung, dass die Sicherheit informationstechnischer Systeme etwas Besonderes ist, ist ein Trugschluss. Tatsächlich ist Sicherheit nur ein Aspekt der Zuverlässigkeit. Wir knnen keine zuverlässigen Anwendungen und Systeme haben, wenn diese nicht sicher sind.Vor diesem Hintergrund gehen die Autoren der Frage nach, ob und in welchem Ausmaß die mit dem Einsatz der Artefakte der digitalen Revolution einhergehenden Risiken beherrschbar bleiben, und welche Mglichkeiten wir bereits heute haben, die Eindämmung von Risiken und Gefahren schon beim Entwurf informationstechnischer Systeme zu berücksichtigen. Die Antwort ist ein systematischer praxis- und modellbasierter Ansatz für das Security-Engineering von Informationssystemen.
Das Buch beschreibt die aktuellen Herausforderungen der Palliativmedizin bei Erwachsenen, beispielsweise in den Bereichen Organisation, gesellschaftlicher Wandel, Entscheidungsfindung, Digitalisierung sowie im Hinblick auf die Zusammenarbeit der verschiedenen Fachbereiche und Berufsgruppen im ambulanten und stationären Bereich. Die Autoren diskutieren interdisziplinäre Lsungsansätze und nehmen Kommunikation, Humor, Kreativität und Religion gleichermaßen in den Blick wie zukunftsweisende Technologien, z. B. Telemedizin und Online-Trauerberatung. Das Werk hilft Ärzten, aber auch allen anderen Mitgliedern des Palliativteams, die aktuellen Herausforderungen der Palliativmedizin zu meistern und die Patientenversorgung weiter zu verbessern.
This book introduces what sclerotia grains are, and where and how they exist in soils, by compiling the results obtained from the studies on fungal sclerotia formed by Cenococcum geophilum (Cg) and related species, the visible black small grains persistent for a few thousand to ten thousands of years in forest soils and sediments. The chapters contain the results and discussions on the ecological distribution and regulating factors, characteristics, and function of Cg sclerotia grains, carried out by researchers from soil geography, soil science, soil microbiology, physiology, forestry, analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, material science, and related disciplines. The anatomy of sclerotia grains in soil was realized in terms of interdisciplinary joint researches, which resulted in deepening understanding of the ecological function of the mesoscale organic component in soils. This book covers the natural history of sclerotia in soils, pedo-sclerotiology.
This book presents a survey, dynamic monitoring and comprehensive analysis of Sri Lanka's land, vegetation, surface water, ocean and other environmental resources, as well as its economic, transportation, urban, agricultural and tourism development. It offers readers accurate, systematic and comprehensive information on Sri Lanka's ecological setting and socio-economic development. It also sheds light on policies for the protection of the environment and biodiversity.
This book highlights the properties of advanced materials suitable for realizing THz devices, circuits and systems, and processing and fabrication technologies associated with those. It also discusses some measurement techniques exclusively effective for THz regime, newly explored materials and recently developed solid-state devices for efficient generation and detection of THz waves, potentiality of metamaterials for implementing THz passive circuits and bio-sensors, and finally the future of silicon as the base material of THz devices. The book especially focuses on the recent advancements and several research issues related to THz materials and devices; it also discusses theoretical, experimental, established, and validated empirical works on these topics.
This book, based on empirical and quantitative research, assesses the development of openness in government affairs in China. The content is divided into five parts, namely a general report, special reports, assessment reports on government transparency, reports on the openness of government in specific fields and how openness in government affairs is locally practiced.Covering the country as a whole, the general report summarizes significant aspects of openness in government affairs at all levels regarding, e.g. decision-making, law enforcement, management, service, policy interpretation and responding to public concerns. In addition, the general report reveals some current problems and provides an outline of openness in government affairs for the future. Focusing on decision-making, social assistance, environmental protection, transport, education and other fields closely related to public interest and social attention, the book subsequently summarizes a number of special works concerning openness in government affairs. Furthermore, it conducts a special study on the standardized work of openness in government affairs, which has been actively pursued by departments of the State Council and local governments.In order to provide representative coverage on openness in government affairs, the book combines innovative measures, experiences and problems, while also sharing an in-depth analysis of the difficulties involved in openness for local governments, including examples from several provinces and cities.
This book highlights emerging trends in terahertz engineering and system technologies, mainly, devices, advanced materials, and various applications in THz technology. It includes advanced topics such as terahertz biomedical imaging, pattern recognition and tomographic reconstruction for THz biomedical imaging by use of machine learning and artificial intelligence, THz imaging radars for autonomous vehicle applications, THZ imaging system for security and surveillance. It also discusses theoretical, experimental, established and validated empirical work on these topics and the intended audience is both academic and professional.